Jan 4, 2021

The Late Years of Caroline Krähmer

Although quite a lot has been written about the life and the musical career of the legendary clarinettist Caroline Krähmer, née Schleicher (1794–1873), the time and place of her death are so far unknown.

Portrait of Caroline Schleicher from around 1809, attributed to Diethelm Heinrich Lavater (Zentralbibliothek Zürich, Schleicher, Karoline I, 1 Pp A4).

While the level of knowledge of the various authors differs slightly, they agree on their ignorance concerning an exact date of Krähmer's death. And yet, with small steps during the last ten years it was still possible to narrow down the long-sought period to year and month. From the statement "nach 1839 ist sie nicht mehr feststellbar" (Antonicek 1967), to "als Solistin war sie nachweislich bis 1856 tätig" (Kornberger 2019), the state of knowledge eventually peaked in Theodore Albrecht's statement: "Dokumente des Haus- Hof- und Staatsarchivs legen nahe, dass sie [Krähmer] im April 1873 starb." (Albrecht 2013, 10). The path to this vital information (which was based on research by the late musicologist Bernhard Paul) is littered with guesswork and curiosities of which only Nicola Färber's ambitious 2008 dissertation about Caroline Krähmer shall be named. Concerning Krähmer's date of death, Färber (whose married name is now Buckenmaier) proudly writes: "bisher[sic] war unbekannt, wann Karoline Krähmer starb", only to show herself unable to provide this very information. In her short 2019 article about Krähmer, Buckenmaier uses Albrecht's data without giving him credit, and so does Anja Herold in her 2015 article for the Sophie Drinker Institut. On her website about Caroline Krähmer, Buckenmaier even claims that "she found out that Krähmer died in April 1873". As a matter of fact, she did not. Bernhard Paul did.

Nicola Buckenmaier, falsely claiming on her website that "she found out that Krähmer died in April 1873".

Buckenmaier's work was gravely hampered by the fact that she never received competent guidance from her dissertation supervisor whose field was not historical musicology, but sociomusicology. It is one of the many problems of today's historical musicology that well-meaning gender researchers are being led to historical topics after never having received the necessary training. The various authors' search for Krähmer's circumstances of death failed due to the lack of deep archival research, a skill that is not being taught at Vienna's academic institutions.

Krähmer's application for a pension

After the death of her husband, the oboist Ernest Krähmer, on 16 January 1837, Caroline Krähmer found herself in a difficult financial situation. She had lost her husband's significant annual income of 980 gulden (500 at the Court chapel, 320 as member of the theater orchestra, plus 160 gulden Personalzulage) and now had to care for her five children, aged 4 to 13, on a 120 gulden annual gift of grace that she was entitled to draw as a widow. Since the issue of her right to receive a pension was not immediately settled, Krähmer, on 25 April 1837, submitted an application to the theater director Friedrich Egon Landgrave zu Fürstenberg who, together with a commentary, forwarded this appeal to his superior, the Oberstkämmerer Count Johann Rudolf Czernin. Fürstenberg's report reads as follows.


The first page of Friedrich Egon zu Fürstenberg's report to the Oberstkämmerer concerning Caroline Krähmer's application for a pension in April 1837 (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 199r). Krähmer's request itself does not survive in the holdings of the Generalintendanz der Hoftheater.

Hochgeborner Graf!

In der Anlage bittet die Wittwe des am 16. Jänner d. J. verstorbenen KK. Hofburgtheater=Orchester=Mitgliedes, Ernst Krähmer, um allergnädigste Verleihung einer Pension für sich und eines Erziehungsbeÿtrages für ihre fünf unmündigen Kinder.
Die in der Bittschrift enthaltenen und mit Beilagen documentirten Angaben sind hierorts richtig befunden worden. Ernst Krähmer diente als Oboist vom 1. Februar 1815 bis zu seinem Tode ununterbrochen und sowohl in seiner Kunst, wie in seiner Thätigkeit mit besonderer Auszeichnung. Der Zustand, in dem er seine Angehörigen hinterließ, ist wahrhaft beklagenswerth. Seine Gattinn kann kaum eine Stunde des Tages auf musikalische Lectionen verwenden, die Sorge für so viele Kinder, von denen dreÿ fast immer krank sind, nimt ihre Zeit in vollen Anspruch. Vermögen ist keines vorhanden, und der wenige frühere Besitz durch Krankheit und Todesfall vielmehr in eine drückende Schuldenlast verwandelt worden. Ernst Krähmer bezog decretmässig 320f C.M. und 160f ad personam.
Ob nun gleich die Orchester=Mitglieder des K.K. Hofburgtheaters nicht pensionsfähig erklärt wurden, so hat die Allerhöchste Gnade jederzeit, bis jetzt, den Wittwen und Waisen jährliche Unterstützungen verliehen. Den Erziehungsbeytrag der Kinder betreffend, so erhielten die sechs Kinder des Orchester=Mitgliedes Schiman[e]k zusammen 200f WW. und ein jedes der neun Kinder des pensionirt gewesenen Hofschauspielers Fux, 40f W.W. mit Einschluß des 100.% Theuerungsbeÿtrages.
Die zu leistende Zahlung würde dem currenten K.K. Hofburgtheater=Pensionsfond zur Last fallen.
      Wien den 25 April 1837.
           Landgraf zu Fürstenbergmp
                                      Director

An Seine, des KK Oberstkämmerers und Obersten Hoftheaterdirectors Herrn Grafen von Czernin, Excellenz.

Highborn Count!

In the enclosure, the widow of the member of the Court theater orchestra, Ernst Krähmer, who died on January 16 of this year, asks for the most gracious granting of a pension for herself and a contribution for the education for her five under-age children. The information contained in the petition, which is documented by enclosures, has been found correct here. Ernst Krähmer served as oboist from February 1, 1815 until his death, without interruption, and with special distinction both in his art and in his work. The condition in which he left his loved ones is truly deplorable. His wife can hardly spend an hour of the day on musical lessons; caring for so many children, three of whom are almost always sick, takes up all of her time. There are no assets at hand, and the small earlier possessions have turned into a heavy burden of debt, owing to illness and bereavement. Ernst Krähmer drew a salary of 320f C.M. plus 160f ad personam. Although the members of the I. & R. Court theater orchestra were not declared pensionable, the Most High Grace, until now, has always awarded the widows and orphans annual grants. Concerning the children's educational contribution, the six children of the orchestra member Schimanek together received 200f in Viennese currency, and each of the nine children of the retired Court actor Fux, received 40f W.W. which included the 100% inflation rate. The necessary payment would burden the I. & R. Court theater's current pension fund.

Vienna, April 25, 1837.
         Landgrave zu Fürstenbergmp
               Director

To His Excellency, the I. & R. chief treasurer and head of the Court theaters, Count von Czernin.
Caroline Krähmer not only asked for a pension and an educational contributien, by act of grace, she also wanted to be paid her husband's lodging allowance for the time from April until September 1837 and the so-called Konduktquartal (a full quarter of a year's income which was paid to a pensionable widow to cover the burial costs). The Austrian state authorities were in no hurry to make a decision about Krähmer's pension. In March 1837 the Obersthofmeister Rudolph Count Colloredo-Mansfeld had received a legal opinion from the Court chamber which specified the possible legal problems related to Krähmer's financial claims. Since no decision was reached, on 21 June 1837, Krähmer submitted the following letter of appeal to Emperor Ferdinand I.

Caroline Krähmer's application from 21 June 1837 for a pension and financial support for the education of her children (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 295).

Euer Majestät

Die unterthänigst unterzeichnete Wittwe des verstorbenen Hautboisten des KK: Hofburgtheater Orchesters Ernst Krähmer wagt es Euer Majestät in tiefster Demuth um allergnädigste Verleihung einer Pension für sich und eines Erziehungsbeitrages für ihre 5 Kinder zu bitten, indem:

1tens Ihr verstorb[ener] Gatte seit dem Jahre 1814 im Hofburgtheater Orchester angestellt war.
2tens Er seiner Wittwen[sic] und seinen zurückgelassenen 5 Waisen nicht das geringfügigste Vermögen hinterließ.
3t Derselbe stetts zur vollen Zufriedenheit seiner hohen vorgesetzten diente.
4t Die gehorsamst Unterzeichnete selbst kein Vermögen besitzt, u somit samt ihren 5 Kindern dem größten Elende Preiß gegeben ist.

Da nun bisher jede Wittwe der Hofburgtheater Orchester Mitglieder eine Pension erhielt, so wagt es die demüthigst Unterzeichnete in ihrer großen Noth die allergnädigste Huld Euer Majestät anzuflehen, damit durch die huldvolle Ertheilung einer Pension u: eines Erziehungsbeitrages für ihre 5 Waisen, das Leben von 6 Unterthanen Euer Majestät von dem unausbleiblichen Untergange gerettet werde, ein Leben welches sie nur dazu verwenden werden um allen Segen vom Himmel für Euer Majestät und Höchstdero Erlauchte Familie zu erflehen.
Unterthänigste dankbarste
Caroline Krähmer.
                            gb: Schleicher Hof Musikus Witwe.

Wien den 21t Juny 837.

Your Majesty

The undersigned widow of the late oboist of the orchestra of the I. & R. Court theater Ernst Krähmer dares to ask Your Majesty in the deepest humility for the most gracious granting of a pension for herself and a contribution for the education of her 5 children, because:
1st Her deceased husband had been employed in the Court theater's orchestra since 1814.
2nd He did not leave the least fortune to his widow and his 5 orphans who were left behind.
3rd The same always served to the full satisfaction of his high superiors.
4th The dutifully undersigned has no fortune herself, and, together with her 5 children, is therefore exposed to the greatest misery.
Since up to now every widow of members of the orchestra of the Court theater has received a pension, the most humble undersigned, in her great distress, dares to implore Your Majesty's most gracious benevolence so that by graciously granting a pension and a contribution for the education for her 5 orphans, the life of 6 subjects of Your Majesty will be saved from inevitable ruin, a life which they will only use to implore all the blessings from Heaven on Your Majesty and His Most Illustrious Family.

Most submissive and most grateful
Caroline Krähmer.
                                  née Schleicher Court musician's widow.

Vienna, June 21, 1837.

Krähmer's claim that every widow of the court theater musicians had been granted a pension was not fully correct. On 11 February 1806, after a submission from the Obersthofmeister, an Imperial decree had been issued which contained the following provision: "The pensionability for the individuals of the court orchestra still has to be avoided, but I permit that this rule may be reconsidered, if one or the other individual has served long, well, and faithfully, and has distinguished himself in morality." (A-Whh, OMeA, r69/1807). An Imperial decree, issued on 24 April 1813, reiterated this legal situation and stated that "the right to be granted a pension is not extended to the members of the orchestra". According to a cabinet resolution of 21 February 1837, needy relatives of deceased court theater musicians were allowed to apply for a gift of grace case-by-case ("von Fall zu Fall"), if they were told to do so by the Emperor. Furthermore, each request had to be approved by the Court chamber.

On 5 July 1837, Count Czernin again presented the request to the Emperor, expressing his hope that "His Majesty would surely recognize the extremely needy situation of this poor family and have the most gracious intention to alleviate it" (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 431). Furthermore, Czernin referred to three other widows of Court theater musicians (Anna Millechner, Katharina Pösinger, and Katharina Schindlöcker) who had previously been granted a pension (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 427v). Czernin argued that Krähmer was entitled to receive a third of her husband's annual net income of 820 gulden, i.e., a pension amounting to 273 gulden 20 kreuzer, which meant that, after the deduction of her gift of grace of 120 gulden, her pension should amount to 153 gulden 20 kreuzer (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 428r). Czernin did not dare to address the issue of the educational support for Krähmer's children, because "he was worried that a separate request in favor of Krähmer's children would be too much of a burden on His Majesty's grace."

The summer of 1837 passed without result. The approaching payment date for the rent on Michaelmas prompted Krähmer to submit yet another petition.

Caroline Krähmer's urgency from 28 September 1837 for a pension and financial support for the education of her children (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 353r).

Euer Majestät!

Die unterthänigst Unterzeichnete wagt es in tiefster Erfurcht Euer Majestät unterthänigst um allergnädigste Erledigung ihres gehorsamsten Ansuchens vom April 837 um gnädigste Pensions Verleihung als Gattinn des verstorbenen Hautboisten des K:K: Hofburgtheaters Ernst Krähmer, zu bitten.
Sie würde sich nicht unterfangen Euer Majestät abermahls zu belästigen, wenn nicht die Michaeli Zinszahlung so nahe wäre, und das neue Schuljahr anfinge, sie aber leider weder den einen zahlen, noch ihre 5 Kinder unterrichten lassen, u vor der strengen Kälte durch warme Kleidung schützen kann, wenn nicht Euer Majestät a[ller]h[öchste] Gnade ihre höchst betrübte u: kümmerliche Lage mitleidigst erwägend, ihr huldvollst eine Pension verleihet.
Unterthänigste dankbarste
Caroline Krähmer.
gb: Schleicher.
                            Hof und Kamer Musikers Witwe,

Wien den 28t September 837.

Your Majesty!

The most humble undersigned in deepest respect dares to ask your Majesty for the most gracious settlement of her most obedient request of April 1837 for the most gracious granting of a pension as the wife of the deceased oboist of the I. & R. Court theater Ernst Krähmer.
She would not dare to bother Your Majesty again, if the Michaelmas rent payment were not so close and the new school year would no be about to begin, but unfortunately she can neither pay the first nor let her 5 children be taught and protect them against the severe cold with warm clothes, unless Your Majesty's Most High grace, by pityfully considering her most sorrowful and miserable situation, grants her a pension.

Most submissive and most grateful
Caroline Krähmer.
   née Schleicher.
                              Court and chamber musician's widow.

Vienna, September 28, 1837.

On 10 October 1837, this petition was answered as follows: "Since the submission regarding this case is still in the very Highest Hands, we can only wait for it to be settled." Finally, on 21 November 1837, Emperor Ferdinand found the time to read Count Czernin's address from July 1837, and he gracefully approved the payment of an annual pension of 153 gulden 20 kreuzer (plus the gift of grace) to Caroline Krähmer. He also allowed his Oberstkämmerer to approach him on a case-by-case basis to ask him to grant pensions to widows of Court theater musicians.

The Emperor's final approval of Caroline Krähmer's pension which was signed on 21 November 1837 (A-Whh, GIdHTh 28, fol. 428v). The Emperor's signature is on the left, Count Czernin's is at the bottom right.

Caroline Krähmer's late concerts

Because she owed her friend, the bassoonist August Mittag, 400 gulden, Caroline Krähmer, after the death of her husband, had no time to remain idle. Already on 23 April 1837, Caroline Krähmer entered the concert stage again (Wiener Zeitung, 13 April 1837, 4), together with her son Karl (1823–1839). On 10 March 1839 she appeared again in a concert at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Wiener Zeitung, 5 March 1839, 322), together with her pianist son Karl who on 14 April 1839 was to die of a sinus infection (A-Wsa, Totenbeschreibamt 184, CGK, fol. 25r). The death of her eldest son reduced Krähmer's concert activities. She had to wait until her cellist son Ernest (1826–1903) was ready to face the Viennese audience. In October 1840, together with this son, she gave a concert at the theater in Augsburg (Augsburger Tagblatt, 19 Ocober 1840, 1282) In September and October of 1841, in the course of a short tour, she visited Linz and Graz where, again together with her son, she performed concert pieces by Leopold Jansa and Ernest Krähmer's teacher Joseph Merk (Grazer Zeitung, 17 September 1841, and 4 October 1841). These concerts seem to have served as rehearsal for the big debut in Vienna which on 10 April 1842 took place at a lunchtime concert in the hall of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (Wiener Zeitung, 7 April 1842, 720). Caroline Krähmer's last three documented public concerts had more the character of family events than of regular concert appearances. Since her son Ernest had moved to Graz, where he had been hired as Kapellmeister at the local theater, Krähmer now used her family visits to Graz as an opportunity to join her son in concerts at this venue. On 6 August 1846, during the entr'actes of Nestroy's farce Liebesgeschichten und Heiratssachen they performed several concert pieces (Grazer Zeitung, 6 August 1846, 375). In September 1847 Krähmer again peformed in Graz with great success (Wiener allgemeine Musik-Zeitung, 21 September 1847, 456). Krähmer's last documented public concert was the result of a family visit to Augsburg where her son, the cellist Ernest Krähmer, as of 1854, held the post of Kapellmeister at the local theater. On 26 April 1856, Caroline Krähmer applied for a passport to "Linz, the Austrian crown territories, and Germany" for a time of six weeks.

The entry concerning the issuance of a passport to Caroline Krähmer to Linz, the Kronländer, and Germany on 26 April 1856 in the protocol of Vienna's municipal conscription office (A-Wsa, Konskriptionsamt, B4/61, fol. 243).

In this entry Krähmer's address is given as "Landstraße 630, currently staying at Wieden 381". Her physical appearance is described as having "medium stature, oval face, brown eyes, proportioned mouth, and no special features". Her Cavent (guarantor) was the municipal concept official Johann Staud who, at that time, was living at his parents' house Klimschgasse 198 in the Landstraße suburb ((Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Kaiserthumes Österreich, 1856, 8). Staud's relationship with Krähmer appears interesting, but must remain unclear for the time being.

Since Krähmer was not entitled to receive her monthly pension of 10 gulden (which legally was a Gnadengabe) while traveling abroad, she had to inform the paying authority, the K.K. Hofzahlamt, of her trip. As a result, on 25 April 1856, this authority issued the following notification.

The notification of the Hofzahlamt concerning the suspension of Caroline Krähmer's gift of grace during her trip to Germany (A-Whh, OMeA, 679, Rubrik 30/8, 1856)

Caroline Krähmer Oboisten Witwe bittet um ämtl[iche] Bestätigung der verfügten Einstellung ihrer Gnadengabe jährl[icher] 120f, für die Dauer ihrer beabsichtigten Reise in das Ausland

Bescheid
(ad copiam rubri)
dd° 25. April 1856
Der Pensions Gnadenbezug der Bittstellerin wird unter Einem für die Dauer ihrer Abwesenheit im Auslande bei dem K.K. Hofzahlamte eingestellt und unterliegt demnach die Ertheilung eines Reisepaßes auf die Dauer an dieselbe von hier aus keinem Anstand.
Videat Hofstaatsbuchhalt[ung]
Intimat an das K.K. Hofzahlamt
Das K.K. &[Hofzahlamt] erhält den Auftrag, die Gnadengabe jährl[icher] 120f der K.K. Oboistenwitwe Caroline Kraehmer aus Anlaß der einer Reise derselben in das Ausland bis auf weitere Weisung zu sistiren.


Caroline Krähmer, oboist widow, asks for official confirmation of the decreed suspension of her annual gift of grace for the duration of her intended trip abroad.

Notification
(for the copy of the summary)
dated April 25, 1856
The petitioner's gift of grace is being suspended by the I. & R. treasury for the duration of her absence abroad, and accordingly, there is no objection from this authority to the issuance of a passport for the time being to the aforesaid person.
To be noted by the Court accountancy
Decree to the I. & R. treasury
The K.K. treasury receives the order to suspend the payment of the annual gift of grace to the I. & R. oboist widow Caroline Kraehmer on the occasion of a trip abroad pending further instructions.

In March 1856, the following note had been published in the Wiener Theater-Zeitung:
At the musical soirees of Mr. Joachim Hoffmann, Mrs. Krähmer, the famous virtuoso on the clarinet, could be heard on various occasions and she earned the most universal admiration and recognition for her enchanting gracefulness in the treatment of this difficult instrument. On the advice of musical friends, she will soon embark on an artistic journey via Linz to Germany, and notwithstanding the advanced age of this notability, she is likely to receive a similar applause everywhere which in earlier years she shared with her husband Mr. Krähmer during their artistic travels. (Wiener Theater-Zeitung, 2 March 1856, 208)

Although the announcement of a long "artistic journey" seems to have been a slight exaggeration, this information was widely circulated in the German press (for instance in the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung, 1856, 78, and the Augsburger Tagblatt, 1 April 1856, 614). On 6 May 1856 Krähmer gave a concert at the Landständisches Theater in Linz as a kind of entre'acte between the performance of two one-act comedies.

The announcement of Caroline Krähmer's concert in Linz on 6 May 1856 (Linzer Abend-Bote, 6 May 1856, 432). A short report about the concert was published two days later (Oesterreichisches Bürger-Blatt, 8 May 1856, 436).

On 10 May 1856 Caroline Krähmer arrived in Salzburg and took up quarters at the hotel Zu den 3 Alliirten (Neue Salzburger Zeitung, 10 May 1856). Her concert in Augsburg was first advertised on 16 May 1856 in the Augsburg newspapers.

The earliest announcement of Caroline Krähmer's concert in Augsburg (Augsburger Tagblatt, 16 May 1856, 942).

Although another entry in the 1857 protocol of passports (A-Wsa, Konskriptionsamt, B4/64, fol. 821) suggests a renewal of this passport, no other public concerts during Krähmer's stay in Germany are documented so far.

The main announcement of Caroline Krähmer's concert on 20 May 1856 in Augsburg (Augsburger Tagblatt, 20 May 1856, 975). In January 1862 Ernest Krähmer left Augsburg after having accepted a professorship at the Munich Conservatory.

Krähmer's concert in Augsburg took place at the Pompejanischer Saal in the hotel "Drei Mohren" which had been created in 1844 by merging a big hall with adjoining dining rooms. This venue was destroyed in February 1944.

By 14 June 1856, Caroline Krähmer was back in Vienna and personally called on the Obersthofmeisteramt to have the payment of her pension resumed.

The order of the Obersthofmeisteramt to the Hofzahlamt concerning the resumption of payment of Caroline Krähmer's gift of grace after her return to Vienna (A-Whh, OMeA, 679, Rubrik 30/8, 1856)

Intimat an das K.K. Hofzahlamt
dd°: 14. Juni 1856
Nachdem die K.K. Oboistenwitwe Caroline Kraehmer von ihrer Reise in das Ausland wieder zurückgekehrt ist, erhält das K.K. Hofzahlamt mit Beziehung auf das Intimat 25. April d.J. Z. 2633 den Auftrag, derselben die Gnadengabe jährl[icher] 120f vom Tage der Sistirung angefangen vorschriftmäßig wieder zu erfolgen.
Videat Hofstaatsbuchhaltg

pro notitia.
Die Witwe Kraehmer hat sich persönlich vorgestellt und um die Wiederanweisung ihrer Gnadengabe gebeten.


Decree to the I. & R. Court treasury
dd°: June 14, 1856
After the widow of an I. & R. oboist Caroline Kraehmer has returned from her trip abroad, the I. & R. Court treasury, with reference to the decree No. 2633 of April 25th of this year, receives the order to continue to pay to the aforesaid the annual gift of grace of 120f as of the day of the suspension in accordance with the regulations.
To be noted by the Court accountancy.

To be noted.
The widow Kraehmer appeared in person and asked for the continuation of her gift of grace.

Krähmer's late addresses – and the birth of a son

Apart from her 1856 trip to Germany, Caroline Krähmer's family life during the last decades of her life has never been the subject of serious research. What has made research difficult so far is the simple fact that the archival sources that offer more detailed information can only be found through systematic and time-consuming searches. So far, three of Krähmer's late residential addresses from the time after 1850 have been identified. In 1850 Caroline Krähmer and her four children are documented to have lived at Landstraße 630 (today Mechelgasse 9).

The Krähmer family in 1850 listed on a conscription sheet of the house Landstraße 630 (A-Wsa, Konskriptionsamt, Landstraße 630/11v). The name of Ernest Krähmer's wife Katharina, née Seligmann was added in 1855.

Since the municipal conscription office was very much interested in the three Krähmer sons, this document from the period between 1850 and 1855 contains an astonishing amount of information which can be summarized as follows: Caroline Krähmer is erroneously described as " KK Hofmusik Directors Wittwe" which is followed by a note referring to her 1856 passport reading "26/4 856 6 W[ochen] Ausl[and]". Then follows the "Tonkünstler" Ernest Krähmer, born "on 27/4/826 in St[adt] Wien" who "on 1 October 1846 in Graz" was examined my the military which led tom the diagnosis of "goiter, a left-sided varicocele, varices, and a crippled small toe on the right". This is followed by a list of four passports abroad which between 1852 and 1855 were issued for Ernest Krähmer (the last one included his wife ["d° sammt Frau"]. The number "16" in the far right column refers to a category of military usability. The next Krähmer son in the list is Konrad, born "on 7/7/829 in Stadt Wien", who – to the possible disappointment of his parents – did not become a musician. On 10 October 1848 he voluntarily joined the military and, as of 1850, served in an artillery regiment ("freiwillig zum 4t Artill[erie] Rgt. assentirt bereits gutgeschrieben"). Emil Krähmer, also a "Tonkünstler" (he was a cellist like his brother), born "on 19/7/832 in Stadt Wien", was of no interest to the military, because in 1853 he had been classified as a weakling ("853 Schwächling"). Beside this note in red ink is a reference to two passports concerning "1 J[ahr] Kronl[änder]" that were issued for Emil Krähmer in 1853 and 1854. The next sibling in the list, Ernestine Krähmer, does not have an exact date of birth (she was born on 23 September 1830), because the conscription office basically registered women only for reasons of completeness. After Ernest Krähmer's wedding, which took place in Augsburg on 23 July 1855 (Augsburg, St. Moritz 11-H, fol. 16), Katharina Krähmer's name was added at the bottom of the list of household members. The date of the wedding appears on the bottom right of the conscription form.

As was shown above, at the time of her application for a passport in April 1856, Caroline Krähmer lived in the house Wieden 381 (today Wiedner Hauptstraße 73). This residence, although referred to as "zur Zeit [currently] Wieden N° 381" in the passport protocol, does not appear to have been temporary, because Krähmer's remaining children are also listed on a concription sheet of Wieden 381 which dates from 1856/57. (This was the latest point of time at which these conscription records were created, since the first census was carried out in 1857).

Caroline Krähmer's family in 1856/57 registered on a conscription sheet of the house Wieden 381 (A-Wsa, Konskriptionsamt, Wieden 381/116r).

Two significant details in the list of family members have changed compared to 1850: first, the son Ernest Krähmer is gone because he has moved to Augsburg, and second, a mysterious 13-year-old foster son appears whose "mother is unknown". The above entry reads as follows.
Karoline Krähmer  794  Stockach G[roß] H[erzogtum] Baden k[atholisch] KK   pens[ionierte] Hof u Kamer Musikantwitwe
 S[ohn] Konrad   829  Stadt Wien   k[atholisch]/l[edig]   Feuerwerker beim 3 Arttil[erie] Reg[iment]
Emil  832   d[ett]o  [Stadt Wien]   Tonkünstler      1853  Loß No 843
Ernestine  830  do
Z[ieh] S[ohn] Karl Franz Schleicher  2/3 843   Landstrasse  [im Alter von 13-16 Jahren] [Anmerkung] Mutter unbekant
Who was Caroline Krähmer's foster son "Karl Franz Schleicher"? Before we try to answer this question, we need to consider the legal situation at that time concerning the birth and baptism of an illegitimate child.
  1. A child born to a Catholic mother needed to be baptized Catholic as soon as possible. 
  2. Since the mother, for reasons of quarantine, was not allowed to get out of bed for nine days after the birth, she was not present at the baptism. The child was brought to church by the midwife or the godparent who also informed the priest of the mother's identity. This is the reason why in such cases priests often used to adorn the mother's name with the cynical epithet "angeblich" (allegedly).
  3. If a widow gave birth to a child out of wedlock, the child could not be given the widow's surname, since her deceased husband was not the father of the child. The mother was entered into the register with her maiden name and the child was given this surname.
A nice example of the third point are the four illegitimate children of the actress Sophie Schröder, who were born between 1817 and 1821 in Vienna. The first of these children was already named Moritz Bürger, although Schröder's husband was still alive (A-Wd, Tom. 107, fol. 145). One look at Carl Johann Franz Schleicher's baptismal entry shows that – apart from the mother's age – there's every indication that this child's mother was Caroline Krähmer.

The entry concerning the baptism of Carl Johann Franz Schleicher on 4 March 1843 in the church "Maria Geburt" on the Rennweg (Rennweg, Tom. 6, fol. 236).

All requirements for attributing this child's birth to the widow Krähmer are fulfilled in this document. The mother's name is (as required by law) "Angeblich: Karoline Schleicher,ledig" whose profession is given as "Handarbeiterin" (manual worker – which ironically also applies to a musician). The child was born at Landstraße 557 (now Rennweg 55), the home of the midwife Anna Pogatschnigg who brought the child to the church and also officiated as godmother. And finally, at least, as of 1856, the child lived in Krähmer's household. One could argue that at the age of 48 Krähmer was too old to bear a child, but as long as the mother "Karoline Schleicher" cannot be identified to have been somebody else, Carl Johann Franz Schleicher must be considered to have been a son of Caroline Krähmer. As was often the case at the time, the newborn child was given into the care of a a foster mother and, in order to avoid a public scandal, was only taken into the mother's home at an age at which an adoption could appear plausible.

Krähmer's third late Viennese address is documented in two volumes of Adolph Lehmann's allgemeiner Wohnungs-Anzeiger. In the 1867 edition of this address book Krähmer's address is given as Steingasse 15 in Vienna's 3rd district.

Caroline Krähmer listed in the 1867 edition of Lehmann's address book as residing at Steingasse 15 in the Landstraße district (Lehmann's allgemeiner Wohnungs-Anzeiger 1867, 168).

In 1868 Krähmer appears again in Lehmann's address book at the same address (Lehmann's allgemeiner Wohnungs-Anzeiger 1868, 470). And yet, one should not attribute too much documentary significance to Krähmer's two-time appearance in Lehmann's allgemeiner Wohnungs-Anzeiger. Contrary to the assumption of many genealogists, owing to its sporadic updating process, Lehmann's address book is notoriously flawed and is vastly overrated as an exact source.

The pension ledgers of the Obersthofmeisteramt

Since her husband's death in 1837, Caroline Krähmer drew a Gnadengabe (gift of grace) from the court. She received a very modest pension, because according to an 1806 Imperial decree, members of the Burgtheater orchestra were not eligible for a regular pension. That Ernest Krähmer had never joined the Tonkünstler-Sozietät may have been related to the fact that his wife had her own income by giving concerts and music lessons. In 1873 Krähmer's gift of grace amounted to 126 gulden per year and the reception of this financial support is recorded in the pension ledgers of the Obersthofmeisteramt (Lord Chamberlain's Department). A review of these registers leads exactly to Krähmer's date of death and this is certainly the source which Bernhard Paul, in his day, used to narrow down the time of Krähmer's death to April 1873. In February 1873, Krähmer received her monthly gift of grace of 10 gulden 50 kreuzer (as of 1858, the Austrian gulden consisted of 100 kreuzer).

The entry concerning the payment of Caroline Krähmer's Gnadengabe of 10,50 gulden for February 1873 in the Sub-Journal des k.k. Hofzahlamtes (A-Whh, OMeA, 923, r118/1873). "Gdg" means Gnadengabe, "Ps" means Pension.

In April 1873 Caroline Krähmer's name is suddenly missing from the payment list of the Hofzahlamt. In May 1873 Krähmer's name reappears, but she only receives a payment of 6,65 gulden and there is the following note beside her name in the Sub-Journal: "Gdg, Ausst. lt Erbslegit.". This means that the payment for April consisted of an "outstanding sum according to a legitimation of inheritance". The reduced sum of 6,65 gulden was paid to bereaved parties which proves that Krähmer died in April 1873.

The entryin the records of the Hofzahlamt concerning the remaining amount of 6,65 gulden for April 1873 which was paid to Krähmer's heirs in May 1873 (A-Whh, OMeA, 923, r118/1873).

Based on the 6,65 gulden arrearage it is even possible to determine Krähmer's exact date of death. In April 1873 she received 1050/30 (=35) kreuzer per day which means that in this month she lived for a time of 665/35 (=19) days. Thus, she must have died on 19 April 1873. Accordingly, after May 1873 Krähmer disappears from the payment lists of the Hofzahlamt.

Caroline Krähmer in Fünfhaus

Krähmer's earliest sojourn in Fünfhaus – which then was a municipality located in Lower Austria west of Vienna – is documented by her application for a passport on 11 February 1862 for a time of six weeks. No address is given in the records, only a reference to Krähmer's listing in the 1857 census book (Volkszählungsbuch).

The entry concerning Caroline Krähmer's application for a passport to Fünfhaus on 11 February 1862 in the passport protocoll of the municipal conscription office (A-Wsa, Konskriptionsamt, B4/70, fol. 34).

It is not known why Krähmer went to Fünfhaus, if she visited a family member there, or if she only wanted to spend a couple of weeks in the country. And yet, her trip to Fünfhaus in 1862 provides a vital clue to finally find out where Caroline Krähmer died. Based on the information gathered in the court records and the passport protocol, it is easy to determine the time and place of Caroline Krähmer's passing. Fol. 88 of the 1873 death register of the Church of The Holy Trinity in Reindorf, in whose parish Fünfhaus was located at the time, contains the following entry.
Zeit des Sterbens
den 19. April
Wohnung und Nr. des Hauses
Fünfhaus Kranzgasse 30
Namen der Gestorbenen und deren Condition oder Charakter, allenfalls Charakter des Ehegatten oder Vaters
Karoline Krämer, geb. Schleicher KK. Hofmusikus Witwe geb. von Stockau[sic] in Baden
Weiblich
   /
Römisch-katholisch
   /
Alters-Jahre
79 Jahr
Todesarten
Altersschwäche
Ort, wohin und Tag, an welchem das Begräbniß geschehen
den 21. April
Anmerkungen
Laut Beschauzettel N° 873

The entry in the death register of the Reindorf parish concerning Caroline Krähmer's obsequies on 21 April 1873 (Reindorf, Tom. 19, fol. 88).

Krähmer died in the house Kranzgasse 30 (formerly No. 287) which, according to the cadastre, consisted of two stories and 18 apartments (Kataster der Vororte Wiens. Lechner 1888, 40). In 1897 this building was replaced with a new six-storied one and today's address Kranzgasse 30 merely marks the entrance of the house Mariahilfer Straße 181.

The Reindorf parish church where on 21 April 1873 Caroline Krähmer was consecrated (Wien Museum, I.N. 234724).

Caroline Krähmer was buried in the Schmelz cemetery which, already as of 1874, was not used for burials anymore and was eventually closed in 1920. If Krähmer was buried in an own grave at all, and the details of her estate, will be the object of future research.



Bibliography

Albrecht, Theodore. 2013. "Ernest Krähmer und seine Frau Caroline (geb. Schleicher) – musikalische Pioniere in der Wiener Biedermeierzeit", Wiener Oboen-Journal, vol. 57, March 2013, 3-10.

Antonicek, Theophil. 1967. Krähmer, Caroline; geb. Schleicher, Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon, Bd. 4, 184.
Buckenmaier, Nicola. 2019. "Caroline Schleicher-Krähmer: The First Female Clarinet Soloist", The Clarinet 46/4, September 2019.
Färber [Buckenmaier], Nicola. 2008. Caroline Schleicher-Krähmer: "Le comble du ridicule", Vienna, Univ. für Musik u. darst. Kunst, Diss., 2008.
Herold, Anja. 2015. "Krähmer, (Maria) Caroline, Karoline, Carolina, geb. Schleicher", in: Europäische Instrumentalistinnen des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts, Sophie Drinker Institut, Bremen.

Kornberger, Monika. 2019. "Krähmer, Familie", in: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon online, accessed: 27.12.2020.



This post is dedicated to Lisa Hirsch in gratitude for her financial support.

© Dr. Michael Lorenz 2021. All rights reserved.

Updated: 18 January 2021

Because this post was written within nine days, some areas of research could not be fully covered owing to the current lockdown of Vienna's archives. A number of sources will be checked as soon as these institutions will reopen.